Review: Marine Seismic And Side-Scan Sonar Investigations For Seabed Identification With Sonar System

  • Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis Politeknik Negeri Batam
  • Kasih Anggraini Research Center for Oceanography LIPI, Indonesia
  • Husnul Kausarian Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Islam Riau, Jl. Kaharudin Nasution No. 113, Pekanbaru, Riau 28284, Indonesia.
  • Sri Pujiyati Department of Marine Science and Technology Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.
Keywords: Marine Seismic, Marine geophysical, Side Scan Sonar (SSS), Seabed, Angels


Marine seismic reflection data have been collected for decades and since the mid-to late- 1980s much of this data is positioned relatively accurately. Marine geophysical acquisition of data is a very expensive process with the rates regularly ship through dozens of thousands of euros per day. Acquisition of seismic profiles has the position is determined by a DGPS system and navigation is performed by Hypack and Maxview software that also gives all the offsets for the equipment employed in the survey. Examples of some projects will be described in terms of the project goals and the geophysical equipment selected for each survey and specific geophysical systems according to with the scope of work. For amplitude side scan sonar image, and in the multi-frequency system, color, becoming a significant properties of the sea floor, the effect of which is a bully needs to be fixed. The main confounding effect is due to absorption of water; geometric spread; shape beam sonar function (combined transmit-receive sonar beam intensity as a function of tilt angle obtained in this sonar reference frame); sonar vehicle roll; form and function of the seabed backscatter (proportion incident on the seabed backscattered signal to sonar as a function of the angle of incidence relative to the sea floor); and the slope of the seabed. The different angles of view are generated by the translation of the sonar, because of the discrete steps involved by the sequential pings, the angular sampling of the bottom.


Download data is not yet available.


Bartholoma A. 2006. Acoustic bottom detection and seabed classification in the German Bight, Southern North Sea. Springer : Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Vol (26): 177 – 184.

Buscombe, D. 2017. Shallow water benthic imaging and substrate characterization using recreational-grade sidescan-sonar. Environmental Modelling & Software, 89, 1-18.

de Souza, J. A., do Carmo Barletta, R., Franklin, L., & Benedet, L. 2015. Utilization of multiple geophysical sources and geotechnical sampling to search for offshore sand deposits for beach restoration in Brazil. In Acoustics in Underwater Geosciences Symposium (RIO Acoustics), 2015 IEEE/OES (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Engquist, B., Frederick, C., Huynh, Q., & Zhou, H. 2017. Seafloor identification in sonar imagery via simulations of Helmholtz equations and discrete optimization. Journal of Computational Physics, 338, 477-492.

Haniotis, S., Cervenka, P., Negreira, C., & Marchal, J. 2015. Seafloor segmentation using angular backscatter responses obtained at sea with a forward-looking sonar system. Applied Acoustics, 89, 306-319.

Lubis, M. Z., & Anurogo, W. 2016. Fish stock estimation in Sikka Regency Waters, Indonesia using Single Beam Echosounder (CruzPro fish finder PcFF-80) with hydroacoustic survey method. Aceh Journal of Animal Science, 1(2).

Lubis, M. Z., & Manik, H. M. 2017. Acoustic systems (split beam echo sounder) to determine abundance of fish in marine fisheries. Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, 2(1), 76-83.

Lubis, M. Z., Anurogo, W., Khoirunnisa, H., Irawan, S., Gustin, O., & Roziqin, A. 2017. Using Side-Scan Sonar instrument to Characterize and map of seabed identification target in punggur sea of the Riau Islands, Indonesia. Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology, 2(1), 1-8.

Lubis, M. Z., Wulandari, P. D., Mujahid, M., Hargreaves, J., & Pant, V. 2016. Echo Processing and Identifying Surface and Bottom Layer with Simrad Ek/Ey 500. Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 7(3), 1000212.

Manik, H. M. 2011. Underwater Acoustic Detection and Signal Processing Near the Seabed, in Sonar Systems. Edited by Nikolai Kolev. First Edition. InTech, Croatia. Hal. : 255- 274.

Manik, H. M., Rohman, S., & Hartoyo, D. 2014. Underwater multiple objects detection and tracking using multibeam and side scan sonar. International Journal of Applied Information System, 2(2), 1-4.

Mohammedyasin, S. M., Lippard, S. J., Omosanya, K. O., Johansen, S. E., & Harishidayat, D. 2016. Deep-seated faults and hydrocarbon leakage in the Snøhvit Gas Field, Hammerfest Basin, Southwestern Barents Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 77, 160-178.

Owen, M. J., Maslin, M. A., Day, S. J., & Long, D. 2015. Testing the reliability of paper seismic record to SEGY conversion on the surface and shallow sub-surface geology of the Barra Fan (NE Atlantic Ocean). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 61, 69-81.

Tamsett, D., McIlvenny, J., & Watts, A. 2016. Colour sonar: Multi-frequency sidescan sonar images of the seabed in the Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth, Scotland. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 4(1), 26.

Yoo, D. G., Kang, N. K., Bo, Y. Y., Kim, G. Y., Ryu, B. J., Lee, K., & Riedel, M. 2013. Occurrence and seismic characteristics of gas hydrate in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 47, 236-247.
Abstract viewed = 438 times
DOWNLOAD PDF downloaded = 237 times