Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>JGEET (Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology) </strong>&nbsp;<strong>(E-ISSN&nbsp;: 2541-5794, P-ISSN&nbsp;: 2503-216X )</strong> is a peer-reviewed and open access journal that publishes significant and important research from area of geological science, related with engineering, environment, and technology. We accept submission from all over the world on English language. Editorial Board members are prominent and active researchers in geological sciences and engineering fields who ensure efficient, fair, and constructive peer-review process. All accepted articles will be published and available to all readers with worldwide visibility and coverage. Our Journal already <a href="">indexed </a>in DOAJ, EBSCO, SINTA, GARUDA, Indonesia One Search, Crossref, Index Copernicus, OCLC, BASE, and University Libraries around the world.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ACCREDITED by Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia, <a title="Accreditation Certificate" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">No.30/E/KPT/2018</a>,&nbsp;October 24, 2018</strong></p> en-US <p>Copyright @2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium.&nbsp;Copyrights of all materials published in JGEET are freely available without charge to users or / institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, search, or link to&nbsp;full-text&nbsp;articles in this journal without asking&nbsp;by giving&nbsp;appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and&nbsp;indicate if changes were made. All of the&nbsp;remix, transform, or build upon the material must distribute the contributions under the&nbsp;same license&nbsp;as the original.&nbsp;</p> (Husnul Kausarian, Ph.D.) (Adi Suryadi, B.Sc.(Hons)., M.Sc.) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 16:47:11 +0000 OJS 60 Front matter JGEET Vol 06 No 04 2021 <p>-</p> JGEET (J. Geoscience Eng. Environ. Technol.) Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Fri, 31 Dec 2021 10:23:45 +0000 The Transitional Gabbroic Rocks in Bayah Geological Complex, Western part of Java, Indonesia, Inferred from XRF, ICP-MS, and Microprobe Analysis <p>Gabbro, is a fossil remnant of oceanic crust in western part of Java, found at Bayah Geological Complex (BGC) and Ciletuh Melange Complex (CMC), Indonesia. It has been studied by using petrographic, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and mineralogical (microprobe) analyses. Mineral and geochemical composition of these rocks provide important clues to their origins since the rocks have been deformed and gone through auto metamorphism, beside they contain the economic mineral and or rare earth elements (REE). Gabbroic rocks in these two areas generally shows phaneritic to porphyritic texture, granular texture. These rocks in CMC are dominated by plagioclase (oligoclase to albite), hornblende, pyroxene, partly altered to tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, and sericite; meanwhile those of BGC dominantly consist of plagioclase, pyroxene, hornblende, some present of chlorite, actinolite, epidote and biotite as secondary minerals. In multi-element diagrams, gabbroic rocks in CMC show strong negative Sr and Zr, but positive Nb anomaly, while those of BGC show strong negative anomaly of Nb and Zr. In addition, based on rare earth elements (REE) diagrams, gabbroic rocks in CMC show depleted of light rare earth elements (LREE) with negative Eu anomaly, while gabbro’s in BGC show enrichment of LREE. These characteristics indicate that GBC’s and CMC’s gabbroic rocks came from different magma sources, one was formed by partial melting of depleted upper mantle reservoir while the other one was formed by partial melting of mantle wedge with active participation of subducted slab in an arc tectonic setting, suprasubduction zone which were formed at started Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene, and they had retrograde metamorphism to epidote amphibolite facies.</p> Aton Patonah, Haryadi Permana, Ildrem Syafri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Tue, 28 Dec 2021 03:08:05 +0000 Interpretation of Subsurface Fault Through Multi-Level Second Vertical Derivative Gravitational Data in Bittuang Geothermal Working Area, South Sulawesi, Indonesia <p>The research was conducted in Bittuang, Tana Toraja Regency, South Sulawesi Province, as one of the geothermal prospect areas and targets for the initial stage of the Government exploration drilling program for the 2020-2024 period. One aspect of geothermal is the manifestation control structure as a fluid migration path from below the surface. Therefore, identification of existing structures in the Bittuang geothermal area was carried out and confirmed the surface geological structure contained in the Bittuang geothermal geological map. In determining the presence of a fault and knowing its characteristics such as the type of fault, the direction of the dip, and the magnitude of the dip of the fault, the gravity data is processed using the multi-level second vertical derivative (ML-SVD) method. To strengthen the interpretation, the results from the ML-SVD were matched with the data from the horizontal gradient (HG) method and the geological data of the structure of the study area. From this process, there are 27 faults in the Bittuang geothermal area, two of which are indicated as controlling faults for the manifestation of the Balla group and the Cepeng group. This research is expected to describe faults in the Bittuang geothermal area, which can support detailed exploration activities.</p> Ullil Gunadi Putra, William Jhanesta, Iskandarsyah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Tue, 28 Dec 2021 03:40:56 +0000 Groundwater Effect on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining: a Case of West Kutai Regency, East Kalimantan, Indonesia <p>The stability of open pit slopes in Biangan district, West Kutai Regency, East Kalimantan Province, is greatly influenced by groundwater conditions. The existence of groundwater reduces the shear strength of the materials which causes a decrease in the stability value of pit slopes. The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of groundwater on the stability of the low wall and high wall pit mining. Groundwater modeling is used to determine the prediction of groundwater level on the pit slope which determines the value of the slope stability. Slope stability analysis in this study was performed using the <em>Finite Element Method</em>, producing output in the form of strain zones, deformation and displacement values. Therefore, the <em>Strength Reduction Factor</em> (SRF) approach was used, which is a gradual reduction of shear strength until the values of cohesion and friction angles reach minimums and the slopes are at a critical state. Groundwater modeling results indicate that groundwater flows to the Biangan river with hydraulic heads between 76 and 108 meters above sea level. Based on the analysis using the Finite Element Method, the stability values of the pit slopes, which are influenced by groundwater, are 0.65 on the low wall and 1.40 on the high wall. The total displacements are 0.019 meters on the low wall and 0.002 meters on the high wall.&nbsp; The impact of groundwater on the slope is an increase in the slope load. This increases the materials’ thrust and reduces the shear strength of the materials which reduces the rock mass that can function as a water seepage path. Thus, the recommendation for low wall pit construction is a safety factor of 7.79 with a total displacement of 0.020 meters.</p> Shalaho Dina Devy, Pretty Permatasari Hutahayan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Tue, 28 Dec 2021 08:55:12 +0000 Understanding Mud Volcano System Using Hele-Shaw (H-S) Experiment: Seismic Confirmation at East Java Mud Volcano <p>Numerous researchers have carried out studies on the mud volcano system in East Java. However, there have been no experiments on the mud volcano system's mechanism, including overpressure confirmed by direct subsurface data. Therefore, this study aims to directly evaluate the mud volcano system's mechanism using the Hele-Shaw (H-S) experiment with the subsurface data confirmation. The H-S experiment utilized four primary materials: quartz sand diameter below 250 µm and 320 µm to analogize the porous layer. Gypsum flour clay is the ductile layer, while mud from the Kuwu and Kesongo Mud Volcanoes is the original material from nature. Wax represents impermeable material. The sealing layer is made of wax, and oxygen represents the natural fluids of the rock formation. The overpressured zone is created by pumping oxygen into a layer of quartz sand covered by a wax as an impermeable layer. Pressure is measured digitally, and the process is continuously recorded to produce traceable data. Each material was experimented on individually to determine the critical phase characteristics, valve fault structure geometry, and validation with seismic interpretation. The results indicate that the critical phase of the mud volcano system is characterized by the dome structure at the surface, with high intensify of gas and oil seepage. Piercement structure geometry is shown by plumbing of fluidization zone, which becomes shallower than before. Furthermore, each material's piercement structure geometry shows a consistent pattern, with differences in the density of the fault and pressure structures. Thus, the H-S experiment's validation with seismic interpretation shows a similar geometry in pressure structures and valve faults as the mud volcano system's migration paths.</p> Muhammad Burhannudinnur, Dardji Noeradi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Tue, 28 Dec 2021 09:56:56 +0000 Resistivity Method for Characterising Subsurface Layers of Coastal Areas In South Sulawesi, Indonesia <p>The data presented in this paper are related to the characterization of a subsurface layer of coastal area in South Sulawesi. This research will fill the gap in the resistivity method study which is this method not yet use in the coastlines area, especially area influenced by seawater and coastal condition impact like South Sulawesi. The method used in this study is the method of resistivity Wenner configuration by taking the data 1-2 lines each region with lengths 45 m, 75 m, 105 m, and 120 m respectively. Data processing using non-linear least square optimization with that of the 2D inversion software Res2Dinv. The results show that the area is underlain by two layers of lithologic sections. In some sections interpreted by sandy layer, clay, sandstone, alluvium, sandy in seawater and metal minerals. From the analysis of the layers, all regions show the resistivity minimum is 0.00849 Ωm and 8.04 Ωm maximum resistivity. The result of this research can give n insight to study the large coastal area subsurface.</p> Rahmaniah, Ayusari Wahyuni, Muhammad Fauzy Ismullah Massinai, Abdul Mun'im, Muhammad Altin Massinai Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Wed, 29 Dec 2021 02:21:13 +0000 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Due to Motor Vehicle Movements in Pekanbaru City, Indonesia <p>Land use has a very close relationship with transportation. Transportation is formed as a result of the interaction between land use and its support system. Good land use supported by good infrastructure will result in good movement as well. Accessibility is one of the supporting factors for good interaction between transportation and land use—the better the land use conditions in an area, the greater the movement in that area. However, the interaction between land use and transportation can cause one of the problems: the increase in carbon dioxide emissions due to the more significant movement of motorized vehicles. Motor vehicles are the most significant contributor to carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions in the world. The further the route traveled by motorized vehicles, the more carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions will increase. This study aims to analyze the average total emission of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) resulting from transportation activities in Pekanbaru City into two parts, namely: (1) Based on Travel Time (2) Based on the type of vehicle. Vehicle Kilometers of Travel (VKT) and Emission Factors are the primary data in calculating Carbon Dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) Emissions. The research area consists of 12 zones involving 1,342 households in Pekanbaru City. Based on travel time, 52% of community motorized vehicle movement activities are carried out in the morning. Private cars contribute 65% of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions in Pekanbaru City based on the type of vehicle. This study found that a high number of motorized vehicles cannot be used as a benchmark that the resulting emissions will also be high. However, the emission of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) depends on the fuel consumption of each vehicle. The higher the fuel consumption, the higher the amount of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions released by motorized vehicles.</p> Erza Guspita Sari, Muhammad Sofwan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Thu, 30 Dec 2021 09:06:16 +0000 Hydrogeochemical and Characteristics of Groundwater in Teluk Nilap Area, Rokan Hilir, Riau <p>Groundwater plays important role as the main water resource for human needs. The vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants both naturally and by human activities can be not avoided as a trigger for groundwater quality degradation. Hydrogeochemical become important highlights in groundwater studies because groundwater conditions in quality and quantity influenced by the geological formation of rock minerals in aquifer. Naturally, the condition of the research area which consists of peat swamps can also affect the characteristics of groundwater. The aims of this research are to determine groundwater types and groundwater facies in study area with an analytical approach using stiff diagram and piper diagram. The method used was purposive sampling by collecting data from dug wells at the research site. 5 samples from dug wells were used as representatives in the groundwater facies analysis. The groundwater facies analysis was carried out by measuring the concentration of major ions such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO<sub>4</sub>, and HCO<sub>3</sub>. The highest groundwater level was in the northern part of study area (7,84 m) while the lowest groundwater level was in the southwest part of study area (2,05 m). The results showed three types of groundwater based on stiff diagram as sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulfate (NaSO<sub>4</sub>) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO<sub>4</sub>). The lithology conditions that composed the aquifer affected the facies or origin of groundwater. The alluvium layer in the research area which rich in sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) minerals with chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>) or sulfate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>) anions forms chloride sulfate facies (Cl+SO<sub>4</sub>) which were located in the middle to the south of the study area and sodium (potassium) chloride (sulfate) facies (Na(K)Cl(SO<sub>4</sub>)) which were distributed in the northern part of study area.</p> Fitri Mairizki, Arief Yandra Putra, Widya Adiza Putri, Ferdyansyah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Thu, 30 Dec 2021 09:31:27 +0000 Fluid Inclusion Study of Epithermal Quartz Veins from the Kyaukmyet Prospect, Monywa Copper-Gold Ore Field, Central Myanmar <p>The Kyaukmyet prospect is located near the main ore bodies of the Kyisintaung and Sabetaung high-sulfidation Cu-Au deposits, Monywa copper-gold ore field, central Myanmar. Lithologic units in the research area are of mainly rhyolite lava, lapilli tuff and silicified sandstone, mudstone and siltstone units of Magyigon Formation which hosted to be polymetallic mineralization. Our field study recorded that epithermal quartz veins are hosted largely in rhyolite lava and lapilli tuff units. Those quartz veins show crustiform, banded (colloform), lattice bladed texture and comb quartz. The main objectives of the present research in which fluid inclusion studies were considered to conduct the nature, characteristics and hydrothermal fluids evolution from the epithermal quartz veins. In this research, there are three main types of fluid inclusions are classified according to their phase relationship (1) two-phase liquid-rich inclusions, (2) the coexisting liquid-rich and vapor-rich inclusions, and (3) only vapor-rich inclusions. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions yielded homogenization temperatures (<em>Th</em>) of 148–282 °C and final ice-melting temperature (<em>Tm</em>) &nbsp;of <em>-</em>0.2°C to -1.4°C . The value of (<em>Tm</em>) are equal to the salinities reaching up 0.35 to 2.07 wt % NaCl equiv. respectively. Estimation formation temperature of the quartz veins provide 190°C and 210°C and paleo-depth of formation are estimated to be between 130m and 210m. Petrography of fluid inclusion and microthermometric data suggest that fluid boiling as well as mixing processes were likely to be happened during the hydrothermal fluid evolution at the Kyaukmyet prospect. According to the characteristics of many parameters including petrography of fluid inclusion, microthermometric data, paleo-depth, evidence of quartz vein textures and types of hydrothermal alteration from the Kyaukmyet prospect allows to interpret these data to be the low-sulfidation epithermal system.</p> Toe Naing Oo, Agung Harijoko, Lucas Donny Setijadji Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Fri, 31 Dec 2021 09:47:36 +0000 Diagenesis Study of Jatiluhur Formation at Cipamingkis River, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia <p>Diagenesis studies in the Jatiluhur Formation are still relatively new, especially in the Cipamingkis River. This research can provide information in the form of components and characteristics of sandstone in the Jatiluhur Formation which can be used as a basis for further research or useful information in the oil and gas industry. Knowledge of diagenetic could be one of the factors that affect in raservoir quality, espesially in sandstone. In this study, data collection was carried out through surface mapping, which is 55 rock samples were obtained from stratigraphic measuring section with a path length of ±2 Km in the Cipamingkis River. The data is in the form of information on sedimentarry structure, textures and composition. There were 23 sandstone and 2 limestone samples which were then subjected to petrographic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of study are several features of diagenesis were found including compaction that works in the form of point contact, long contact, concavo-convex contact and suture contact and dominated by mechanical compaction, while in limestone there is a brittle fracture feature in bioclasts. The cement found in the form of calcite cement, quartz and clay minerals that the form of kaolinite, smectite and illite, while the limestone is in the form of blocky and fibrous to bleded which is filled with calcite minerals. Dissolution occurs in the minerals of quartz, feldspar, and mica. The mineral replacement that is commonly found occurs in quartz and feldspar minerals. In limestone, there is an intergranular micritization. The dominant type of porosity found was interparticle with an average of 10.4% found between 3 – 23%. The history of diagenesis that occurs in rocks in the Jatiluhur Formation begins with the initial deposition of eogenesis, followed by burial mesogenesis and ends with telogenesis which reveals rocks on the surface.</p> Intan Aulia, Rezky Aditiyo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Fri, 31 Dec 2021 09:49:35 +0000 Tectonic Geomorphic of Sulawesi Island and Its Implication for Future Large Earthquake <p>This paper analyzes how resource of past and prospective great earthquake on the Central Sulawesi Arm, adhere on topography analysis from several space-based source. To answer the question, we analysis the tectonic geomorphic, stream pattern, exhumed fault, geological mapping and seismicity data. Detailed tectonic geomorphic studies in Sulawesi still lacking due to tectonic and fault obscures.&nbsp; For instance, Palu Koro Fault (PKF) was unpredictable, because the historical seismic records inevitably remain poorly documented and unrecognized fault strand, which was buried beneath abundant Quaternary alluvium subsequently obscured the fault trace. In other hand, the faults have been active during Quaternary must take into account because potentially dangerous, also the inactive faults during instrumental period&nbsp; must be re-evaluated in order to have awareness for large future large earthquake. Surprisingly, recent seismic activity of PKF generate super shear rupture a Mw 7.5 earthquake on 28<sup>th</sup> September 2018 with average slip 41 mm/year, which over the past two decade quiet from any seismic activity. The seismic potential for large fault is essential, since it has been silent during the instrumental period. Therefore, our motivation in this study to produce detail tectonic geomorphic map of the region in local scale, which is currently not available to prepare better knowledge and awareness for the large future earthquake. We have use Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with resolution ~30m, which run by ArcGIS software to observed tectonic geomorphic evidence of fault system and supplement with structural, geological and bathymetric data’s as ware available to us. We relate this analysis with seismicity data from Centroid Moment Tensor Solution (CMT) to recognize the seismic source. Our results show the tectonic geomorphic of Central Sulawesi Arm due to nature extension of NNW-SSE left-lateral slip curving to WNW-ESE of Palu-Koro Fault (PKF), then transcript to N-S circular normal fault of Poso Fault (PF). The PF indicate replica of PKF curving, where has not been mapped previously. We have mapped 60 major onshore fault systems, 10 faults showed evidence maximal to rapid rate tectonic activity along instrumental periods. Based on our CMT analysis, Sulawesi Island is greatly dominated by oblique fault.</p> Catur Cahyaningsih, Yos Admojo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Fri, 31 Dec 2021 16:43:34 +0000 Back matter JGEET Vol 06 No 04 2021 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> JGEET (J. Geoscience Eng. Environ. Technol.) Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology Fri, 31 Dec 2021 10:25:56 +0000