Exploring stress levels and physical activity patterns: A comparative analysis of blended and conventional learning methods



  • Ely Yuliawan Department of Sports Coaching, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
  • Sugih Suhartini Department of Sports Coaching, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
  • Anggel Hardi Yanto Department of Sports Coaching, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
  • Eko Kuntaro Department of Primary School Teacher Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
  • Sofyan Department of Education Administration, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia


Physical activity, stress, blended learning, conventional


Changes in learning methods cause a crucial decrease in physical education needs and time of involvement in physical activity, which can affect individual stress levels. The objective of this study was to find out the comparison of physical activity patterns and stress levels between blended versus conventional learning methods. This study used quasi-experimental with a posttest-only approach with a control group design. The total subjects were 160 sports students from Universitas Jambi, who were divided into two groups (Experiment and Control) with average age of 21.69 ± 1.33 years, weight of 55.74 ± 6.48 kg, height of 170.10 ± 5.51 cm, and BMI of 21.06 ± 2.77 kg/m2. The results showed that the blended learning group had a lower level of physical activity when compared to their respective conventional groups. Furthermore, the stress level in the blended learning group had a moderate stress while the conventional group had a low-stress. Thus, the research findings have answered the question that physical activity can affect an individual’s stress level, and conventional learning methods are still the best method compared to blended learning methods. This finding can be used as a reference, especially for educators, both lecturers and teachers in schools, to be able to take a spiritual approach and invite students to do activities they like, such as exercise and recreation, to trigger a sense of enthusiasm in students to continue to improve their fitness degree. Therefore, this will have an impact on mental health, which can affect student stress levels much lower.


Download data is not yet available.


Al Saadi, T., Zaher Addeen, S., Turk, T., Abbas, F., & Alkhatib, M. (2017). Psychological Distress among Medical Students in Conflicts: a Cross-Sectional Study from Syria. BMC Medical Education, 17(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-017-1012-2

Anderson, E., & Durstine, J. L. (2019). Physical Activity, Exercise, and Chronic Diseases: a Brief Review. Sports Medicine and Health Science, 1(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smhs.2019.08.006

Apriantono, T., Herman, I., Hasan, M. F., Juniarsyah, A. D., Ihsani, S. I., & Hidayat, I. I. (2020). Physical Activity Level Mapping of Senior High School Students in West Java. Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Olahraga, 5(1), 17–21. https://doi.org/10.17509/jpjo.v5i1.20673

Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2022). Adaptability to a Sudden Transition to Online Learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Understanding the Challenges for Students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 8(2), 85–105. https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000198

Camargo, C. P., Tempski, P. Z., Busnardo, F. F., de Arruda Martins, M., & Gemperli, R. (2020). Online Learning and Covid-19: a Meta-Synthesis Analysis. Clinics, 75, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2020/e2286

Darkwa, B. F., & Antwi, S. (2021). From Classroom to Online: Comparing the Effectiveness and Student Academic Performance of Classroom Learning and Online Learning. OALib, 8(7), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1107597

Eva, N., Parameitha, D. D., Farah, F. A. M., & Nurfitriana, F. (2021). Academic Resilience and Subjective Well-Being amongst College Students using Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. KnE Social Sciences, 202–214. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v4i15.8206

Fan, Q., Wang, H., Kong, W., Zhang, W., Li, Z., & Wang, Y. (2021). Online Learning-Related Visual Function Impairment during and After the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.645971

Haycock, D., Jones, J., & Smith, A. (2020). Developing Young People’s Mental Health Awareness Through Education and Sport: Insights from the Tackling the Blues Programme. European Physical Education Review, 26(3), 664–681. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X20942264

Huberty, J., Green, J., Glissmann, C., Larkey, L., Puzia, M., & Lee, C. (2019). Efficacy of the Mindfulness Meditation Mobile App “Calm” to Reduce Stress among College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 7(6), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.2196/14273

Janssen, I., Roberts, K. C., & Thompson, W. (2017). Is Adherence to the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth Associated with Improved Indicators of Physical, Mental, and Social Health? Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42(7), 725–731. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0681

Johnson, A. M., Knell, G., Walker, T. J., & Kroshus, E. (2023). Differences in American Adolescent Sport Participation during the COVID-19 Pandemic by Learning Mode: a National Survey. Preventive Medicine Reports, 32(102151), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2023.102151

Kapasia, N., Paul, P., Roy, A., Saha, J., Zaveri, A., Mallick, R., Barman, B., Das, P., & Chouhan, P. (2020). Impact of Lockdown on Learning Status of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students during COVID-19 Pandemic in West Bengal, India. Children and Youth Services Review, 116(105194), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105194

Lestari, Syafril, S., Latifah, S., Engkizar, E., Damri, D., Asril, Z., & Yaumas, N. E. (2021). Hybrid Learning on Problem-Solving abiities in Physics Learning: a Literature Review. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1796(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1796/1/012021

Liao, C.-C., Hsu, C.-H., Kuo, K.-P., Luo, Y.-J., & Kao, C.-C. (2023). Ability of the Sport Education Model to Promote Healthy Lifestyles in University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(3), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032174

Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., & Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, Limitations and Recommendations for Online Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(4), 27–31. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2785

Nathania, A., Krisna Dinata, I. M., & Adiartha Griadhi, I. P. (2019). Hubungan Stres terhadap Kelelahan pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana. Intisari Sains Medis, 10(1), 134–138. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v10i1.400

Oshima, S., Cao, Z.-B., & Oka, K. (2015). Physical Activity, Exercise, Sedentary Behavior and Health Physical Activity Levels and Physical Activity. Physical Activity, Exercise, Sedentary Behavior and Health, 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55333-5

Paudel, P. (2020). Online Education: Benefits, Challenges and Strategies during and after COVID-19 in Higher Education. International Journal on Studies in Education, 3(2), 70–85. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijonse.32

Pavlovic, A., DeFina, L. F., Natale, B. L., Thiele, S. E., Walker, T. J., Craig, D. W., Vint, G. R., Leonard, D., Haskell, W. L., & Kohl, H. W. (2021). Keeping Children Healthy during and after COVID-19 Pandemic: Meeting Youth Physical Activity Needs. BMC Public Health, 21(485), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10545-x

Putri, R. M., Oktaviani, A. D., Utami, A. S. F., Latif, N., Addiina, H. A., & Nisa, H. (2020). Hubungan Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh dan Gangguan Somatoform dengan Tingkat Stres Mahasiswa UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. Perilaku dan Promosi Kesehatan: Indonesian Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 2(1), 38–45. https://doi.org/10.47034/ppk.v2i1.4003

Radu, M.-C., Schnakovszky, C., Herghelegiu, E., Ciubotariu, V.-A., & Cristea, I. (2020). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Quality of Educational Process: A Student Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(21), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217770

Raes, A., Detienne, L., Windey, I., & Depaepe, F. (2020). A Systematic Literature Review on Synchronous Hybrid Learning: Gaps Identified. Learning Environments Research, 23(3), 269–290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-019-09303-z

Ratanasiripong, P., Ratanasiripong, N., & Kathalae, D. (2012). Biofeedback Intervention for Stress and Anxiety among Nursing Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. ISRN Nursing, 2012(827972), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/827972

Rocamora, I., Casey, A., González-Víllora, S., & Arias-Palencia, N. M. (2023). A Comparison of Motivation and Physical Activity Levels Between a Sport Education Season and a Hybrid Sport Education and Cooperative Learning Season. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 42(2), 350–360. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2021-0077

Rodríguez Macías, M., Abad Robles, M. T., & Giménez Fuentes-Guerra, F. J. (2021). Effects of Sport Teaching on Students’ Enjoyment and Fun: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(708155), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.708155

Rusli, R., Rahman, A., & Abdullah, H. (2020). Student Perception Data on Online Learning using Heutagogy Approach in the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. Data in Brief, 29, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105152

Saddik, B., Hussein, A., Sharif-Askari, F. S., Kheder, W., Temsah, M.-H., Koutaich, R. A., Haddad, E. S., Al-Roub, N. M., Marhoon, F. A., Hamid, Q., & Halwani, R. (2020). Increased Levels of Anxiety Among Medical and Non-Medical University Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United Arab Emirates. Risk management and healthcare policy, 13, 2395–2406. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S273333

Son, C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on College Students’ Mental Health in the United States: Interview Survey Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.2196/21279

Tripathy, M., & Sahu, B. (2019). Manoranjan Tripathy & Bisweswari Sah. Immediate Effect of Nadi Shodhana Pranayama on Blood Glucose, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure. Journal of American Science, 15(5), 65–70. https://doi.org/10.7537/marsjas150519.09

World Health Organization. (2020). WHO Guidelines on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015128

Xiao, J., Sun‐Lin, H., Lin, T., Li, M., Pan, Z., & Cheng, H. (2020). What Makes Learners a Good Fit for Hybrid Learning? Learning Competences as Predictors of Experience and Satisfaction in Hybrid Learning Space. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(4), 1203–1219. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12949

Yeom, Y.-R., & Choi, K.-B. (2013). The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation Programs on Nursing College Students’ Perceived Stress, Depression, and Self-efficacy. Journal of East-West Nursing Research, 19(2), 104–113. https://doi.org/10.14370/jewnr.2013.19.2.104

Yikealo, D., Tareke, W., & Karvinen, I. (2018). The Level of Stress among College Students: A Case in the College of Education, Eritrea Institute of Technology. Open Science Journal, 3(4), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.23954/osj.v3i4.1691

Yulianti, M., Apriani, L., & Makorohim, M. F. (2022). Evaluation of Learning in Hybrid Learning in Sports Physiology Course. JUARA : Jurnal Olahraga, 7(3), 763–773. https://doi.org/10.33222/juara.v7i3.2432



How to Cite

Yuliawan, E., Suhartini, S., Yanto, A. H., Kuntaro, E., & Sofyan. (2023). Exploring stress levels and physical activity patterns: A comparative analysis of blended and conventional learning methods. Journal Sport Area, 8(3), 380–387. https://doi.org/10.25299/sportarea.2023.vol8(3).13324



Received 2023-06-20
Accepted 2023-09-13
Published 2023-10-08