Arsenic survey in Dried Sediments of Maharlu Saline Lake
Being on the steep slope of Shiraz city and getting the main drainages, Maharlu Lake is always home to extensive levels of urban pollution. Prolonged droughts and drying of surface sediments of the lake happen usually in warm seasons of the year, and with the continuation of the droughts particles spread out from the surface into the surroundings of the lake. Arsenic and its compound are well known for its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Industrial and farming waste in upstream of the lake are the main sources of arsenic and may disperse in Maharlu Lake. In this study, by meshing the lake’s surface and by sampling 15 points 3 kilometers away there determined the Arsenic amount. Then, the toxicity indexes and Mueller index together with its risks were studied before zoning of the lake through GIS and verification. The results showed that the average concentration of arsenic was 3.5 mg/ kg of surface sediment. The concentration has gone in most parts of the lake below normal as shown by Mueller index so that its contamination and lower-than-usual toxicity is deemed anthropogenic. Interpolations by GPI, LPI, and IDW methods demonstrated the north part of the lake more concentrated, likely due to the north lake farming and being the entrance of River Soltanabad. The verification of data has recognized the IDW method as the most accurate as regards interpolation. According to the importance of heavy metals in the dust, samples should be taken from winds coming from the lakeside as dust hotspot to control the metals concentration.
Dehghani, M., Taghizadeh, MM. Hashemi, H.and Rastgoo, E. . 2013. A Preliminary Assessment of Dispersion Level of SO2 in Fars Industrial Region, South of Iran, by GIS. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, ArticleID 670590,6 Pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/670590
Dehghani, M., Taghizadeh, MM. Hashemi, H.and Rastgoo, E(2014) GIS-Assisted Investigation on Dispersion of BTEX in Industrial Regions of Zarghan, Iran" Journal of Environmental Studies, 39, 125-135
Dekov, V. M., Arau'jo, F., Van Grieken, R. & Subramanian, V. 1998Chemical composition of sediments and suspended matter from the Cauvery and rahmaputra rivers (India). Sci. Total Environ, 212, 89-105.
Evseev . A.V, Krasovskaya. T.M, 2017, Toxic metals in soils of the Russian North, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 174, 128-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.05.018
Fendorf, S., Michael, H.A., van Geen, A., 2010. Spatial and temporal variations of groundwater arsenic in South and Southeast Asia. Science 328, 1123 -1127. https://doi.org/10.15625/0866-7187/40/1/10971
Fukue , M., Yanai, M., Sato, Y., Fujikawa, T., Furukawa, Y. & Tani, S. 2006Background values for evaluationof heavy metal contamination in sediments. J. Hazard. Mater, 136, 111-119.
Håkanson, L. 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control-a sedimentological approach. WaterRes, 14, 975-1001. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8
Kabata-Pendias A, Mukherjee AB 2007. Trace elements from soil to human. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32714-1
Kishe, M. A. & Machwa, J. F. 2003. Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Mwanza Gulf of LakeVictoria, Tanzania. Environ Int, 28, 619-625.
McDonald, D. D., Ingersoll, C. G. & Berger, T. A. 2000. Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, 39, 20-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002440010075
Moore.F, Forghani .G & . Qishlaqi.A 2009” Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and surface sediments of the Maharlu saline lake, SW Iran” Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Transaction A, Vol. 33, No. A1
Müller, G. 1969. Index of geoaccomulation in sediments of the Phine River. Geol. Jour, 2, 109-118.
Moriarty, M.M., Lai, V.W.M., Koch, I., Cui, L.P., Combs, C., Krupp, E.M., Feldmann, J.,Cullen, W.R., Reimer, K.J., 2014. Speciation and toxicity of arsenic in mining- affected lake sediments in the Quinsam watershed, British Columbia. Sci. To-tal Environ. 466, 90 -99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.005
Natasia, N., Syafri, I., Alfadli, M.K., Arfiansyah, K., 2016. Stratigraphy Seismic and sedimentation Development of Middle Baong Sand , Aru Field , North Sumatera Basin. J. Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology 1, 51–58. https://doi.org/10.24273/jgeet.2016.11.7
National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens; National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services: Washington, DC, USA, 2011
Putra, D.B.E., Choanji, T., 2016. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas. J. Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology 1, 41–44. https://doi.org/10.24273/jgeet.2016.11.5
Quansah, R.; Armah, F.A.; Essumang, D.K.; Luginaah, I.; Clarke, E.; Marfoh, K.; Cobbina, S.J.; Nketiah-Amponsah, E.; Namujju, P.B.; Obiri, S.; et al. 2015 Association of arsenic with adverse pregnancy outcomes/infant mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ. Health Perspect., 123,412–421. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307894
Rezvani,p. Taghizadeh,M.M.(2018). On using clay and nanoclay ceramic granules in reducing lead, arsenic, nitrate, and turbidity from water. Applied Water Science 8, 131
Roussiez, V., Ludwig, W., Probst, J.L., Monaco, A., 2005b. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean): an approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements. Environmental Pollution 138, 167-177 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.02.004
Selley, R., Robin, L., Cocks, M., Plimer, I., 2005. Encyclopedia of Geology. Geology 3345. DOI: 10.1016/B0-12-369396-9/00102-7.
Smedley, P.L., Kinniburgh, D.G., 2002. A review of the source, behaviour and dis-tribution of arsenic in natural waters. Appl. Geochem. 17, 517-568. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00018-5
Taylor, S.R. and McLennan, S.M. 1985 The Continental Crust; Its composition and evolution; an examination of the geochemical record preserved in sedimentary rocks. Blackwell, Oxford. 312.
Trouw, R., Passchier, C., Wiersma, D., 2009. Atlas of Mylonites- and related microstructures. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03608-8
Turekian, K.K. and Wedepohl, K.H. 1961 Distribution of the Elements in some major units of the Earth's crust. Geological Society of America, Bulletin 72, 175-192.
WHO, 2012 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts. A Review of Human Carcinogens; International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organisation: Geneva, Switzerland,.
World Health Organization’s Arsenic Fact Sheet. 2016. Available online: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs372/en/ (accessed on 15 January 2017). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03608-8.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright @2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium. Copyrights of all materials published in JGEET are freely available without charge to users or / institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, search, or link to full-text articles in this journal without asking by giving appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. All of the remix, transform, or build upon the material must distribute the contributions under the same license as the original.