Facilitating Conditions of Saudi Arabia – Israel Normalization in 2015-2018
Since 2017, there have been several events that indicate the closeness of relations between the Saudi Arabia and Israel. One of the most significant proof was a statement from Muhammad bin Salam in an interview in The Atlantic stating that Israel had rights to their land. The improvement in relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia has come under fire from many parties such as Hezbollah and Palestine. This research aims to analyze the conditions that facilitate Saudi Arabia’s normalization toward Israel in 2015-2018 with desecuritisation theory based on Bezer Coskun observations of Copenhagen School security analysis. This research is a qualitative research using secondary data as its sources. Researcher used desecuritisation variables that were used by Bezer Coskun on his previous research regarding Palestine and Israel in 2009. Those four variables are, 1)The change in the language to define previously securitized issue, 2) Position of the desecuritising actor and the relation between desecuritising actor and audience, 3) Conditions that point out the necessity for desecuritisation. Researcher found that condition that facilitates Saudi-Israel normalization are Muhammad bin Salam as desecuritisation actor and necessity of Israel’s assistances in realization of Saudi Vision 2030 and Iran power raising in Middle East region after Arab Spring 2011.
Alaraby,” Mohammad bin Salman meets with rabbis in New York,” (30 Maret 2018) http://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2018/3/30/mohammed-bin-salman-meets-with-rabbis-in-new-york. (Diakses pada 16 Juni 2019)
Al-Ayyam,” Mecca Agreement,” (8 Februari 2007). http://we.archieve.org/web/20080212122709/http://www.jmcc.org/documents/meccaagree.htm (Diakses pada 1 Maret 2019)
Adeed Dawisha,” Saudi Arabia’s Search for Security,” Adelphi Papers. No. 158. (1980).
Adeed Dawisha,” Internal Values and External Threats: The Making of Saudi Foreign Policy,” Orbis, Vol. 23. (1979). hlm.129-143
Al-Rasheed, Madawi,” King Salman And His Son : Winning the U.S. Losing the Rest,” LSE Middle East Centre Report. (2017).
Andreas Oelsner,” (De)securitization Theory and Regional Peace: Some Theoritical Reflections and a Case Study on the way to Stable Peace,” European University Institute, (2005)
Barston, R.P,” Modern Diplomacy,” Routledge, Fourth Edition, (2014).
Barnett, Michael N,” Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order,” (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).
BBC,” Jamal Khashoggi :Turkey says journalist was murdered in Saudi consulate,” BBC News. (7 Oktober 2018) http://www.bbc.com/news /world-europe-45775819 (Diakses pada 8 Juni 2019)
BDS. BDS Gulf Holds its First Regional Anti-Normalisation Conference. Palestenian Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions National Committee (BNC). (24 November 2017). http://bdsmovement.net/news/bds-gulf-holds-its-first-regional-anti-normalisation-conference. (Diakses Pada 3 Oktober 2018)
Besen, Coskun. Analysing desecuritisation : the case of Israeli and Palestinian peace education and water management. Loughborough University. (2009) hlm.24
Buzan, B. People, States and Fear: An Agenda For International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. (1983).
Buzan, B. New Patterns of Global Security in the Twenty-First Century. International Affairs. (1991).
Buzan, B dan Waever, O. Regions and Power: the Structure of International Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2003).
Buzan, B, Ole Waever, dan Jaap deWilde. Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner . (1998).
Bichara, Khader. The Palestinian Question and the Arabs (1917-2017) : Popular Support, Government Stakes. IEMed Mediterranean Yearbook 2017.
Booth, William. Here's what really happened in the Gaza war. The Washington Post (3 September 2014). https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/09/03/heres-what-really-happened-in-the-gaza-war-according-to-the-israelis/ (Diakses pada 9 Juni 2019)
Bruce Kuniholm. What the Saudis Really Want: A Primer for the Reagan Administration. (1981). hlm.111
Bronner Ethan. Prominent Israelis to Propose Peace Plan. The New York Times. (Mei 2011) http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/05/world/middleeast/05israel.html (Diakses Pada 22 Maret 2019
Catherine Hardy,”Saudi Arabia and Russia sign arms deal,” Euronews, (6 Oktober 2017) www.euronews.com/2017/10/06/saudi-arabia-and-russia-sign-arms-deal (Diakses pada 29 Juni 2019)
Chara, Jihan, Saudi Arabia; A Prince’s Revolution, European View 2018, Vol 17(2) 228, Sage
Chugtai Alia,” Saudi Relations: A Time line,” (4 Desember 2018) http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2017/05/saudi-relations-timeline-170518112421011.html (Diakses pada 6 April 2019)
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Diadpso pada : 24 October 1979. Diubah pada : 28 Juli 1989 http://en.mfa.ir/uploads/Constitution_8032.pdf (Diakses pada 21 Mei 2019)
Creswell J. W. Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches (Edisi ke-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. (2009).
Dalia Hatuka. How the Gulf States Got in Bed With Israel and Forgot About the Palestinian Cause. 28 Maret 2019. Foreign policy.com https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/03/28/how-the-gulf-states-got-in-bed-with-israel-and-forgot-about-the-palestinian-cause-netanyahu-oman-chad-uae-saudi-arabia-mohammed-bin-salman-qatar-bahrain/ (Diakses pada 9 Juni 2019)
Ellen R. Wald, Neom, the Saudi Leadership’s new “city of the future,” become a reality? https://www.thecairoreview.com/tahrir-forum/the-dream-of-a-city/
Gause G,” Is Saudi Arabia really counter-revolutionary? The Middle East channel,” Foreign policy. (2011). http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/08/09/is-saudi-arabia-really-counter-revolutionary/ (Diakses pada 30 Juni 2019)
Hardy, Catherine, ”Saudi Arabia and Russia sign arms deal,” Euronews, (6 Oktober 2017) www.euronews.com/2017/10/06/saudi-arabia-and-russia-sign-arms-deal (Diakses pada 29 Juni 2019)
International Atomic Energy Agency,” IAEA Report for Military dimensions,” ( 8 November 2011) P4-12. www.isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/IAEA_Iran_8Nov2011.pdf (Diakses pada 30 Juni 2019)
Khader Bichara,” The Palestinian Question and the Arabs (1917-2017) : Popular Support, Government Stakes,” IEMed. Mediteranian Yearbook 2017. (2017).
Korybko, Saudi Arabia Might Recognize Israel Because of NEOM, https://orientalreview.org/2017/10/26/saudi-arabia-might-recognize-israel-because-of-neom/
Korybko, Andrew, The Gigantic City Project Called NEOM: Saudi Arabia Might Recognize Israel Because of NEOM Project, https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-gigantic-city-project-called-neom-saudi-arabia-might-recognize-israel-because-of-neom-project/5615312
Lacroix, Stephane,” Saudi Islamists and Arab Spring. Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalization in the Gulf State,” (Mei 2014).
Malt Zahn N.V,” The Syria-Iran Axis: Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations in the Middle East,” Library of Modern Middle East Studies. (London, New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. 2015)
Marwa Rashad,” Saudis awat Prince’s vision future with hope and concern,” Reuters.com (24 April 2016). http://www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-plan-idUSKCN0XL0B2 (Diakses pada 3 Mei 2019)
NEOM News, Will Israeli Companies Participate in the NEOM Project, https://neomsaudicity.net/israeli-companies-participate-neom-project/
NTI,” Nuclear,” Mei 2018 http://www.nti.org/learn/countries/iran/nuclear/ (Diakses pada 29 Juni 2019)
Office of the United States Trade representative,” Saudi Arabia- U.S- Saudi Arabia Trade Facts,” http://ustr.gov/countries-regions/europe-middle-east/middle-east/north-africa/saudi-arabia (Diakses pada 9 April 2019)
Raghavan Sudarsan dan Fahim Kareem,” Saudi King names son as new crown prince, upending the royal succession line,” The Washington Post. (21 Juni 2017) http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/saudi-king-names-son-as-new-crown-prince-upending-the-kingdoms-succession-line/2017/06/21/e66db88d-fecc (Diakses pada 8 Juni 2019)
R.P Barston,” Modern Diplomacy,” Routledge, Fourth Edition, (2014).
Stephane Lacroix,” Saudi Islamists and Arab Spring. Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalization in the Gulf State,” (Mei 2014).
TIME,” Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman talks to TIME about the Middle East, Saudi Arabia’s Plans and President Trump,” (April 2018). TIME http://time.com/5228006/mohammed-bin-salman-interview-transcript-full/
TehranTimes,” Zarif: We’ve never claimed nuclear deal only favors Iran,” 22 Juli 2015 https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/248149/Zarif-We-ve-never-claimed-nuclear-deal-only-favors-Iran (Diakses pada 11 Juni 2019)
Tova Cohean dan Ari Rabinovitc,” Exclusive : Israel’s El Al seeks international help to access Saudi airspace,” (Maret 2018). reuters.com. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-el-al-arlns-saudi-exclusive/exclusive-israels-el-al-seeks-international-help-to-access-saudi-airspace-idUSKCN1GD4SZ (Diakses pada 5 Januari 2019)