Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purpose in Gulistan-e-Johar Town, Karachi, Pakistan
The main objective of present study is to evaluate the groundwater quality of Gulistan-e-Johar Town for drinking. For this purpose, groundwater samples (n=18) through electrically pumped wells were collected from shallow aquifers (mean depth = 36 m). Collected samples were subjected to determine the physical characters (TDS, pH, temperature), major (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO 4 , HCO 3 , and NO 3 ) and minor ions (Fe, Mn and F). Data reveal very high content of TDS (mean: 2862 mg/L) coupled with elevated concentration of Na (mean: 974.6 mg/L), Cl (mean: 545.3mg/L), SO 4 (mean: 600mg/L), Mn (mean: 0.04 mg/L) and F (mean: 1.7 mg/L). The results indicated that groundwater of Gulistan-e-Johar is not suitable for drinking purpose and may lead to dangerous health impacts. The WQI value of groundwater is found to be 183 which is also endorsing that groundwater of Gulistan-e-Johar is unfit for drinking purpose.
Ahmad, M., 2012. Iron and manganese removal from groundwater: geochemical modeling of the Vyredox method.
AMA, 1975. Efficacy and safety of fluoridation. Chicago.
ASTDR, 2012. Toxicological Profile: Manganese. Atlanta, GA, United States ,.
Ayoob, S., Gupta, A.K., 2006. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review on the Status and Stress Effects. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 433–487. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380600678112
Basavarajappa, H., Manjunatha, M., 2015. Groundwater quality analysis in Precambrian rocks of Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India using Geo-informatics technique. Coast. Ocean Eng. 4, 1354–1365.
Chand, D., 1999. Fluoride and human health-Cause for concern. Indian J. Environ. Prot.
Elbanna, K., El-Shahawy, R., Atalla, K., 2012. A new simple method for the enumeration of nitrifying bacteria in different environments. Plant Soil Environ. 58, 49–53.
EPA, 1975. National interim primary drinking water regulations.
Fordyce, F.M., Vrana, K., Zhovinsky, E., Povoroznuk, V., Toth, G., Hope, B.C., Iljinsky, U., Baker, J., 2007. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe. Environ. Geochem. Health 29, 83–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-006-9076-7
Gao, H., Jin, Y., Wei, J., 2013. Health risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water from Anhui Province in China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 185, 3687–3695. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2820-9
Ghosh, A., Mukherjee, K., Ghosh, S.K., Saha, B., 2013. Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment. Res. Chem. Intermed. 39, 2881–2915. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-012-0841-1
Hubner, M., 1969. Geochemische interpretation non-fluoride/hydroxide. Geo. Geol. Wise. B. Miner. Lagerstatten Forsch 1415.
Khan, A., Bakhtiari, A.E., Anjum, S., 2017. Groundwater Quality and Fate of Public Health in New Karachi Town, Karachi, Pakistan. Int. J. Phys. Educ. Heal. Sport. Allied Sci. 1, 73–86.
Kumar, N., 1997. A view on fresh water environment. Ecol. Env. Cons 3, 3–4.
McMurry, J., Fay, R.C., 2004. Hydrogen, Oxygen and Water, in: McMurry Fay Chemistry. Pearson Education, New
Jersey, . 575–599.
Mesdaghinia, A., Vaghefi, K., … A.M.-B. of environmental, 2010, undefined, 2010. Monitoring of fluoride in groundwater resources of Iran. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 84, 432–437. https://doi.org/doi:10.1007/s00128-010-9950-y
Moghaddam, A., Fijani, E., 2008. Distribution of fluoride in groundwater of Maku area, northwest of Iran. Environ. Geol. 56–116.
Nova Scotia Environment, 2008. Iron and manganese.
Oruc, N., 2008. Occurrence and problems of high fluoride waters in Turkey: an overview. Environ. Geochem. Health 30, 315–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-008-9160-2
Pithawalla, M., Martin-Kaye, P., 1946. Geology and Geography of Karachi and Its Neighbourhood [With Plates].].
Ramamohana Rao, N. V., Rajyalakshmi, K., 1974. Studies of water quality and incidence of fluorosis in Andhra Pradesh. Proc. Symp. Fluorosis 477–485.
Ramesam, V., Rajagopalan, K., 1985. Fluoride ingestion into the natural waters of hard-rock areas, Peninsular India. J. Geol. Soc. India 25, 125–132.
Rao, N., 1992. FACTORS AFFECTING OPTIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF GROUNDWATERS IN CRYSTALLINE TERRAIN OF THE EASTERN GHATS, VISAKHAPATNAM AREA, ANDHRA-PRADESH, INDIA. J. Geol. Soc. London. 40, 462–467.
Rao, R., Naidu, M., 1973. Geochemistry of high-fluoride natural waters if Jaggaiahpalem, fluorosis-endemic village near Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Inst. Symp. Recent Res. Appl. Geochemistry 6.
Reghunath, R., Murthy, T., Raghavan, B., 2002. The utility of multivariate statistical techniques in hydrogeochemical studies: an example from Karnataka, India. Water Res. Elsevier 2437–2442.
Rott, U., Lamberth, B., 1993. Groundwater clean up by in-situ treatment of nitrate, iron and manganese, WATER-SUPPLY OXFORD-11,.
Shah, S.M.I., 2009. Stratigraphy of Pakistan, Geological Survey of Pakistan. GSP Mem. 284–301.
Shah, T., Roy, A.D., 2002. Intensive Use of Groundwater in India, IWMI-TATA Water Policy Program. Anand, India.
Susheela, A., Kumar, A., Bhatnagar, M., Bahadur, R., 1993. Prevalence of endemic fluorosis with gastrointestinal manifestations in people living in some north-Indian villages. Fluoride 26 26, 97–104.
UNESCO, 1992. Groundwater UNESCO.
WHO, 2011. Guidelines for drinking water quality (No. 4th Edition). Geneva.
Wood, J., 1974. Biological cycles for toxic elements in the environment. Sci. JSTOR 183, 1049–1052.
Yisa, J., Jimoh, T., 2010. Analytical studies on water quality index of river Landzu. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 7, 453.
Zhang, Y., Zeng, J., Yu, B., 2009. Experimental study on interaction between simulated sandstone and acidic fluid. Pet. Sci. 6, 8–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-009-0002-3
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright @2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium. Copyrights of all materials published in JGEET are freely available without charge to users or / institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, search, or link to full-text articles in this journal without asking by giving appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. All of the remix, transform, or build upon the material must distribute the contributions under the same license as the original.