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Opinions expressed in articles published in the Jurnal Engineering & Sciences are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent opinions of the Universitas Islam Riau (UIR). The Jurnal Engineering & Sciences does not guarantee the appropriateness for any purpose of any method, product, process, or device described or identified in an article. Trade names, when used, are only for identification and do not constitute endorsement by Jurnal Engineering & Sciences.