Literature Review of Water Alternation Gas Injection

  • mohammed Alsharif Samba libyan
  • Mahmoud Omran Elsharafi


The Water Alternating Gas (WAG) process is a cyclic method of injecting alternating cycles of gas followed by water and repeating this process over a number of cycles. WAG injection is to improve oil recovery, by both increasing the macroscopic and microscopic sweep efficiency and to help maintain the reservoir pressure. Also, WAG injection is to postpone the gas breakthrough. The WAG process provides mobility control in fast zones which extends gas project life and oil recovery.

This paper provided a comprehensive literature study about  WAG injection. This  paper has collected most of the requirements of the petroleum engineers that has to know about the WAG injection started from basic concepts until the design parameter for WAG injection.


Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, WAG injection



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Belkacem, et al., (26-28 June 2007 ) Miscible WAG Pilot - Hassi Messaoud field Field, Algeria IFP - OAPEC Joint Seminar "Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) Techniques and Their Role In Boosting The Recovery Factor" Rueil-Malmaison, France.
Blunt, MJ. et al, (Feb. 1994) : "A Predictive Theory for Viscous Fingering in Compositional Displacement" SPERE 73.
CAUDLE et al., (Oct. 6-9, 1957) Improving Miscible Displacement by Gas-Water Injection, SPE 911, G Original manuscript received in Society of Petroleum Engineers office July 16, 1957. Revised manuscript received Sept. 17, 1958. Paper presented at 32nd Annual FalI Meeting of Society of Petroleum Engineers in Dallas, Tex.
Christensen, J R, Stenby, E H, Skauge , A, (January 2001) “Review of the WAG field experience”, SPE 71203, revised paper 39883, presented at the 1998 SPE International petroleum Conference and exhibition of Mexico, Villhermosa, March 3-5, 1998. Paper peer approved 22.
Don W. Green, G. Paul Willhite, (1998) Enhanced Oil Recovery Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Eng, J H, Bennion, D B, Strong, J B, (Oct 1993) Velocity Profiles in perforated completions, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 49 – 54.
George A , Virnovsky,( 1994) Stability of Displacement Fronts in WAG Operations ,SPE 28622 ,first presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, held in New Orleans, LA, U.S.A.
L.G. Jones, A.S. Cullick, and M.F. Cohen, Mobil R&D Corp. (1989) WAG Process Promises Improved Recovery in Cycling Gas Condensate Reservoirs, SPE 19113 this paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium held in Dallas, Texas.
Moritis, G, (1995), Impact of production and development RD&D ranked”, Production Editor, Oil and Gas Journal.Vol 93, Issue 44.
Suphattra et al.(2011), Water Alternating Gas Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery in The Phitsanulok Basin.
Nabil, et al., (2004) The Performance of WAG in a Stratified Reservoir, Hassi-Messaoud Field, Algeria , SPE 88482 , This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Perth, Australia.
Reid B. Grigg and Robert K. Svec (2007), CO2 Retention and Injectivity, Sixth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration – DOE/NETL.
Rogers, J D, Grigg, R B, (2000) A literature analysis of the WAG injectivity abnormalities in the CO2 process , SPE 59329, presented at the 2000 review SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery symposium on held in Tulsa, OK.
Saleem Qadir Tunio and Tariq Ali Chandio,(2002), Recovery Enhancement with Application of FAWAG for a Malaysian Field ,Published: Faculty of Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia.
Todd, M.R. and Longstaff, WJ, (1972),The Development, Testing and Application of a Numerical Simulator for Predicting Miscible Flood Performance," JPT 874; Trans., AIME, 253.
Zahoor, M.K ; Derahman, M.N; Yunan, (2011) , WAG process design – an Updated Review. Barazilain jornal of petroleum and gas.
How to Cite
SAMBA, mohammed Alsharif; ELSHARAFI, Mahmoud Omran. Literature Review of Water Alternation Gas Injection. Journal of Earth Energy Engineering, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 2, p. 33-45, oct. 2018. ISSN 2540-9352. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 june 2019. doi: